Gettier problems or cases are named in honor of the American philosopher Edmund Gettier, who discovered them in They function as challenges to the. Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. This short piece, published in , seemed to many decisively to refute an. In , Edmund Gettier challenged the whole notion of what constitutes knowledge. Until he published a short paper that year called ‘Is Justified True Belief.

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Such accounts, of course, face the same burden as causalist responses to Gettier: Keith Lehrer and Thomas Paxson proposed another response, by adding a defeasibility condition to getteir JTB analysis. The following two generic features also help to constitute Gettier cases: Reprinted in Moser There is one more piece of crucial information for this example: He says that a belief is not knowledge if it is true only courtesy of some relevant accident.

That is, each can, if need be, accommodate the truth of both of its disjuncts. Unfortunately, however, this proposal — like the No False Core Evidence Proposal in section 9 — faces a fundamental problem of vagueness. The JTB account was first credited to Platothough Plato argued against this very account of knowledge in the Theaetetus a. Imagine that you are standing outside a field.

Gettier Problems | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Where is Brown to be found at the moment? Whether it can be weakened without becoming subject to a counterexample should then be checked. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund GettierGettier-type counterexamples called “Gettier-cases” challenge the long-held justified true belief JTB account of knowledge.

That is, are there degrees of indirectness that are incompatible with there being knowledge that p? Nonetheless, a few epistemological voices dissent from that approach as this section and the next will indicate. Oxford University PressEdmunnd. Again, Smith is the protagonist.

Includes the sheep-in-the-field Gettier case, along with attempts to repair JTB. After all, even if some justified true beliefs arise within Gettier situations, not all do so.

What evidence should epistemologists consult as they strive to learn the nature of knowledge? Admittedly, even when a belief is mistaken it can feel to the believer as if it is true. In other words, does Smith fail to know that the person who will gettiet the job has ten coins in his pocket?


Thomas Nagel, “The Absurd”. Philosophy and The Matrix”. Reprinted, with revisions, in Roth and Galis A justified version of Luke’s thought process, by that logic, might go like this:. But epistemologists have noticed a few possible problems with it.

Although it provides good support for the truth of the belief in question, that support is not perfect, strictly speaking.

Edmund L. Gettier, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?”

Since in most cases the believer’s evidence does not necessitate a belief, Kirkham embraces skepticism about knowledge. Its failing to describe a jointly sufficient condition of knowing does not entail that the three conditions it does describe are not individually necessary to knowing.

One interpretive possibility — gfttier Hetherington — is that of describing this knowledge that p as being of a comparatively poor quality as knowledge that p.

Section 12 posed the question of whether supposedly intuitive assessments of Gettier situations support the usual interpretation of the cases as strongly — or even as intuitively — as epistemologists generally believe is the case. First, as Richard Feldman saw, there seem to be some Gettier cases in which no false evidence is used. In response to Gettier, most seek gettler understand how we sdmund have at least some knowledge — gettir such knowledge will either always or almost always be presumed to involve some fallibility.

And that is why edund the infallibilist there is a lack of knowledge within the efmund — as indeed there would be within any situation where fallible justification is being used. However, many critics such as Marshall Swain [] have argued that the notion of a defeater fact cannot be made precise enough to rule out the Gettier cases without also ruling out a priori cases of knowledge [ citation needed ]. This theory is challenged by the difficulty of giving a principled explanation of how an appropriate causal relationship differs from an inappropriate one without the circular response of saying that the appropriate sort of causal relationship is the knowledge-producing one ; or retreating to a position in which justified true belief is weakly defined as the consensus of learned opinion.

Alan Musgrave – – In James Maclaurin ed. Armstrong, “The Nature of Mind”. But what he does not realize is that the neighborhood contains many fake barns — mere barn facades that look like real barns when viewed from the road. Here, the sound true arguments ascribed to Smith then need also to be valid believed and convincing justified if they are to issue in the real-world discussion about justified true belief. It stimulated a renewed effort, bettier ongoing, to clarify exactly what knowledge comprises.


Some abnormal or odd circumstance is present edmuund the case, a circumstance which makes the existence of that justified and true belief quite fortuitous. But it is getrier clear that Smith does not know that e is true; gettieg e getrier true in virtue of the number of coins in Smith’s pocket, while Smith does not know how many coins are in Smith’s pocket, and bases his belief in e on a count of the coins in Jones’s pocket, whom he falsely believes to be the man who will get the job.

According to the inherited lore of the epistemological tribe, the JTB [justified true belief] account enjoyed the status of epistemological orthodoxy untilwhen it was shattered by Edmund Gettier For we should wonder whether those epistemologists, insofar as their confidence in their interpretation of Gettier cases rests upon their more sustained reflection about such matters, are really giving voice to intuitions as such about Gettier cases when claiming to be doing so.

Views Read Edit View history. It would be correct without being knowledge. It seems that most do so as part of a edmunnd general methodology, one which involves the respectful use of intuitions within many areas of philosophy.

To many philosophers, that idea sounds regrettably odd when the vague phenomenon in question is baldness, say.

This proposal would not tettier be that the evidence overlooks at least one fact or truth. It is almost as if a distinguished critic created a tradition in the very act of destroying it. Peirce and William James — Peirce emphasized fallibilismconsidered the assertion of absolute certainty a barrier to inquiry, [11] and in defined truth as follows: